Logistics: The history of the issue
Regarding the occurrence of logistics there are two versions, not excluding, however, one another. One says that in the Roman Empire a special system of food distribution was developed.
Another version, more widespread and close, is associated with the participation of US troops in the Second World War. In the depths of the American General Staff, new technologies for supplying the army were developed (and used during the war). They were, if we could say so, to increase the comfort of combat operations: so that the projectiles did not have to be delivered to the position of Plastunks and that, after dinner, no American soldier not left without a usual cup of coffee and chewing gum. Everything was supposed to be in the right amount, in the right place and at the scheduled time.
The art of supply was polished at a theater of war so much that after the war, practical Americans could not but apply it in civilian life. A Logistics Management Board was established which defined: “Logistics is the process of planning, organizing and controlling the movement of material flows, storing and storing them, providing relevant information about all stages of their progress from the place of shipment to their destination, in order to ensure the satisfactory satisfaction of clients’ requests. »
By the 70s, logistics was finally formed as an applied discipline, and the term became actively used throughout the Western world. At about that time, the rapid development of retail chains began, and the first supermarkets began to appear (in the true sense of the word). And there was a need to establish direct links between suppliers and sellers, so that goods were delivered weekly directly to the stores. Then logistics, which were not yet named, manually regulated the filling of shelves of stores and support of assortment. Offsets were offset by stockpiles.
In 10-15 years this became insufficient. Intermediate links appeared: distribution centers, where suppliers of goods were brought, transport companies ordering major shipment to stores, etc. It became obvious that it is unprofitable to store stocks in warehouses, and therefore it is necessary to increase the so-called turnover of commodity stocks (the period for which the product has time to be sold, so that its place occupied another).
Soon, logistics easily crossed through the simple distribution of goods. Having shown its effectiveness, it turned out to be particularly useful in our time.
The fact is that the western market today is covered by the idea of cost minimization. This is understandable: most goods have almost identical properties, approximately equal prices and are often produced at the same factories. And the only chance to survive in this toughest competition is to save. On trifles, imperceptible details – meters, minutes, cents … According to expert estimates, in developed companies, the reduction of so-called logistic costs by 1% is equivalent to almost 10% increase in sales. These are gigantic numbers. It is worth fighting for them.
And then on the stage specially trained people – logistics (they are logists).
What do logistics do?
If you carefully read all the complex definitions of this mysterious specialty, then one can sum up: it is an economy. Logistics is designed to save money, production, time, money, space, equipment, etc. The logist, according to the exact expression of one of the journalists, is a professional scratch that is almost the only one in the entire chain from producer to consumer thinking not about how to earn, but how to save.
Logistics, therefore, control all processes where it is possible to realize this economy. And these are purchases, deliveries, transportation, communication with customs and state bodies, packing, sales. Having built up a complex structure of the mutual connection of the elements, the logistics does not allow the goods to lie for a long time in the warehouse, a truck – to go a long way, the store – to wait for the import of products.
So, the necessary product of the required quality in the required amount at the appointed time should be delivered to a suitable place with minimal costs for the consumer.
If all these rules are fulfilled, it can be considered that the logistics has fulfilled its task. And today’s transformation of logistics into a large business with high costs (in the industrialized countries -20-30% of GDP) only indicates that the task is not of the simple ones.
The need for logical thinking does not exclude intuition and a wonderful reaction-the ability to quickly find a way out of a difficult situation. Some experts generally believe that “good logistics, as well as a real baker, can only be a player” from God “-not able to guess the desire of the chef in the eyes, but endowed with talent to move goods and goods, like figures on a chessboard, to a brilliant unravel »
Quite useful and communicative qualities, the ability to find common language with different people (from truck drivers to directors of factories and officials of the Customs Committee) and high degree of concentration (in fact, it is necessary to work simultaneously with a lot of information